OSI or Open System Interconnection is stated as the reference model that shows the communication of the application over a network. OSI model referred to as the conceptual framework which helps to understand the relationship. Also, the OSI reference has a specific purpose. It guides both the developers as well as vendors with regards to the digital communication products. Also, it includes the guide for the software programs created by the developers which in turn can interoperate. The OSI the model also facilitates the clear framework which leads to the description of network functioning along with the telecommunication system.
Perception of 7 layers in the OSI model
The thought process and the mindset of non-technical, as well as technical people, are different. A layman creates a connection of 7 layers with super bowl bean dip. But, for the IT professionals, the 7 layers are OSI or Open Source Interconnection. The Open system interconnection or OSI will give a vivid description of the telecommunication or networking system. Also, the model can state what is going on in a particular networking system. The computer programmers, as well as the network managers, can get a solution to their networking problems. If you want the advice from the tech vendors, they will always suggest the OSI model. This makes the customer understand easily on which layer their products are actually working.
How does the OSI model work?
OSI model is one of the important frameworks for most of the IT professionals. It uses to trace the data that is mostly received or sent over a network. Moreover one can find the seven layers to which data transmission the OSI model breaks down. These seven layers have different functions. Each program on the device comes with 7 layers of function.
The constituents of the OSI model are as follows:
- Layer 7- Application– In this layer of the OSI model the software or the user is enabled to communicate with the network or application. This is seen as soon as the user transfers the files or read the messages. Also, it is the layer of OSI that is close to the end-user. This is where the user can interact directly. In this connection, the browsers used here are Firefox mozzarella, Google Chrome, Safari, etc.
- Layer 6- Presentation– This is the layer for data encryption and presentation. In this layer, the formatting, as well as translation of data, takes place which has the basis of syntax and semantics. The translation or the application of the application represents in this layer. There is a transition of network formatting to the format of the application. The process helps in secure data transmission.
- Layer 5– Session– Interhost communication is the main function in this layer. Here the conversation between applications takes place which includes functions like setup, coordination, and termination. This layer is very important when two devices wish to speak to one another. The functions in this layer are set up and coordinated.
- Layer 4– Transport– This is where the transfer of data throughout the network takes place. It also provides data flow controls as well as an error checking mechanism. The volume of data to be sent is found out here. Here the transport takes place between the system as well as hosts. TCP or transmission control protocol is one of the best examples of this layer.
- Layer 3– Network– It is one of the vital layers of the OSI model where the movement of data takes place and gets channelized through other networks. It also requires the correct network address information. At this layer, most of the router functionality is observed. Packet forwarding is another important function in this layer.
- Layer 2– Data link layer– Particular layer of the OSI model is also known as the protocol layer. It deals with moving data from and into the physical link. This is where the node to node data transfer takes place. Also, it deals with the error correction function right from the physical layer.
- Layer 1– Physical layer– Throughout this phase, the activity of data transport takes place with the activity like mechanical, electrical and procedural interface. The electrical, as well as physical representation of the system, is observed in this layer. Everything gets included here right from the radio frequency link to the cable type. The inclusion of this layer is the voltages, layout of pins, cable type, etc.
What is the requirement to know about 7 OSI layers?
The IT professionals or individuals going for the certifications will require having the knowledge about 7 OSI layers. Also, when the IT vendors speak about specific OSI layer it is important to know about the product that works with it. One of the most important purposes of the OSI model is providing proper guidance to the vendors as well as developers dealing with several IT related products and networking area.
Discussion and the talks take place among different types of people as well as groups. The argument among people observes where a group of people says that the OSI network’s model is obsolete. They say it due to its theoretical nature. Some people also say that it is quite hard to read about networking technology without knowing about each of the OSI layers. Moreover, an individual having knowledge about the OSI model and the layers can easily understand how it gets interoperated. People will know about which devices, as well as protocols, are used for the same. Knowing about new technologies that come interconnected to it is an added advantage.
Tips to remember OSI 7 layers
It is not possible for everyone to remember the 7 layers of OSI step by step. Especially when the students studying in college are going to sit for the certification test, remembering about OSI 7 layers is an important consideration. In this connection, the experts have found out few tips which can easily help individuals to remember the OSI 7 layers.
Application to Physical layer (top-down)
- All Pals Secured To Need Data Processing
- All Pros Searches Tip Nick Donut Places
- A Penguin Says, That None Drinks Pond Water
- A Person Saw Two Nany Doing Paddling
From physical to Application (bottom-up)
- Please Do Not Thicken Sausage Pizza Again
- Pew! Dull Ninja Turtles Smells Pretty Awful
- Priest Do not Need To See Poland Abduction
- Pom Does Not Need To See The Priest Anymore
Network troubleshooting with the OSI model
Individuals and companies with IT-related tasks need to face several issues related to networking. But, now we are aware of the network’s OSI models. Also, we know the layers of OSI. Soon the issues will minimize. This is when we have to split the network issues into seven layers. There are specific phases where most of the network issues take place. Those layers are data link, physical as well as a data link. The expert will start the task of troubleshooting in chronological order. It will start from the physical layer and gradually it will proceed to the application layer.
There are several steps in troubleshooting. Also, the network that falls in the physical layer will check whether or not all the physical components are operating in a proper way. Normally, the network issues take place due to damage in terminals as well s cables.
Moreover, when we speak about the wireless network, the issues that we can see in common are wireless interference and excessive signal attenuation. Normally, with the procedure of troubleshooting, most of the network’s issues get resolved. But, even if the issues and problems do not get the resolve you have to move to the next step of troubleshooting. It is mostly known as the data linked layer.
Data linked layer
The data link layer is what you need to know in this step. At this stage, all the VLAN and switch configuration will be verified along with the MAC addressing. The next possible way to resolve an issue is by looking for IP address conflicts. In this connection, you can also remove the duplicate IP addresses. Thereafter you have to check the STP or the spanning tree protocol. This is really vital as it manages the network loops. But, sometimes you can see issues of flood and jamming in the network.
The network layer usually has issues with network addressing. Also, at some point in time, there are routing issues. But, if you can verify all IP addresses as well as the routing protocols, solving the network issue won’t be difficult. One should also know the reason behind the network issues. Some of them are :
- Damaged network devices
- Network bandwidth issues
- Incorrect device configuration
- Authentication issues
It will be easy to locate the network issues in this particular layer. You must be wondering and asking yourself how. The word ‘ ping’ will do all the needful. Yes, it is one of the most common commands which is also known as one of the effective troubleshooting commands. It will also find out the network issues in this layer. If the successful ping passes over the default gateway, it denotes that the net connection is working fine.
Issues with network
The main issue in the transport layer of networking is concerned with the ports. It is when the ports are either damage or block. While you are resolving the issues it is very important to make sure that no firewall is in the process of blocking TCP/UDP. There will be a disability in quality of service (QoS).
In the application layer, there are several client servers. The applications that use over here are POP3, SMTP, FTP, HTTP, etc. There can be situations when you can find DNS related issues. One of the commands that can help you in this connection is ‘ nslookup’. You can also come across another vital command in this connection. It is known as ‘tcpdump’. It uses in the filtration process of TCP/IP. Another important factor will be analyzing network packages.
Documentation of the problem is an important consideration. This is very important when you are into the task of troubleshooting. Soon you can see everything has started working again. But, that does not mean that the task is finished. In this connection, the individual needs to recreate the problem. This will help you when the problem again strikes you suddenly in the future.
Internet and OSI
Along with the acceptance of the OSI model, there are some platforms where it is widely criticizing. The inherent implementation complexities hang around with network operations. The network will be slow and inefficient. In this connection, the replacement of the existing protocol will get better alternatives throughout the communication layers. But, it was a failure with regards to gaining traction in the industry. Already several IT vendors have invested several resources in TCP/IP products. The OSI model offers vast choices of specifications as well as models. There has been a consideration by academia where the OSI model inspires by the US government authorities as well as the European telecommunication.
In the real world network’s environment, the older TCP/IP architecture model exists. Years ago, it has served to be a solid foundation for the internet. Also, it includes privacy as well as security. Folks can come across the performance-related challenges. Today’s cyber world create after long and continued research, investment as well as development. The next-generation ITSM makes a combination of the cognitive automation technology with the digital variation. This will bring the best practice in ITSM principles.
If you have knowledge about the 7 layers of the OSI model, solving various technical problems will be easy. Whether the issue is related to network or communication, the impact of troubleshooting will always help. The academia can now memorize the 7 layers of the network model. The online tech sites and social media also help in getting more information on this subject. The tech-savvy people must stay tuned to the particular info channel.
Using the OSI model in troubleshooting NAS
- Narrowing down the issue, based on the ping status, the faulty layer can be traced and start working from the end layer that is convenient to reach the faulty layer.
- Based on the Ping trace understand the sequence of layers to troubleshoot the issue- most of the time NAS issues can be tracked from layer 7.
- Putting different IT infra teams together to work on respective layers that require fixing or changes on the NAS connectivity or data access.
Resolving the issue, glancing the OSI model and proper sequential process carry out with a collaborative approach aligning IT infrastructure respective teams to get the services with minimal SLA and compare against working configurations through the post validation process concludes the issue resolution with an incident update. Check the performance in the speed of data access from NAS.
- Problem management to carry out to ensure there is no repetition of the issue by addressing the cause and fixing it.
I hope the above information helps the freshers in IT infrastructure support team or IT professionals to understand the OSI models and troubleshooting steps.
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